As far as a personal decision to obtain testing, the CDC recommends that you should get tested for a current COVD-19 infection if:
1) You have symptoms of COVID (such as cough, fever, difficulty breathing, fatigue, new loss of taste or smell (Symptoms of COVID-19 | CDC) you should be tested right away.
2) You have a known exposure to someone with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. In this case, if you are fully vaccinated (including boosters) you should be tested ~ 5-7 days after the most recent exposure.
If you are not fully vaccinated (including not having received a booster on schedule), you should get tested right away and then, if the test result is negative, get tested again ~ 5-7 days after the last exposure (or immediately if symptoms develop, as above).
If you have been exposed to someone with COVID-19, are asymptomatic, and you have tested positive for COVID-19 within the past 3 months and recovered, you do not need to get tested.
If you are still considering whether or not you need a COVID-19 test, the CDC has an interactive online assessment tool via which you answer a series of questions and you are provided with recommended actions and resources based on your responses (no identifying personal health information is required). https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/coronavirus-self-checker.html#content
* Information contained herein has been updated and is current as of January 19th, 2022.
* CDC statement regarding recommendations: "These recommendations do not apply to health care personnel and do not supersede state, local, tribal, or territorial laws, rules, and regulations."